vrijdag 20 januari 2012

The new cardinals

Pope Benedict XVI announced on Jan. 6 the creation of 22 new cardinals, including 18 under the age of 80 and hence eligible to elect the next pope. Given that the bulk are Vatican officials (10), Italians (seven) and Europeans (13), news reports styled it as a crop reinforcing the conservative, and curial, stranglehold on the College of Cardinals.

First of all, this isn't likely to be a celebrated consistory on the Catholic right. This isn't the crop of November 2010, which featured conservative lions such as Cardinals Raymond Burke of the United States and Malcolm Ranjith of Sri Lanka. Instead, this group is composed mostly of ecclesial equivalents of Mitt Romney, meaning center-right pragmatists who inspire little ideological fervor.

Consider Archbishop Dominik Duka of Prague, a Dominican and a biblical scholar. Duka reportedly has called the older Latin Mass "a Baroque artifact for Baroque times" and has signaled openness to in-vitro fertilization if the destruction of embryos could be avoided. Archbishop Giuseppe Betori of Florence has tried to heal the historical divide between the progressive and conservative camps among Italian laity, and for his trouble, a traditionalist commentator has labeled Betori a "paleo-liberal," charging that he's part of a subterranean bloc of cardinals opposed to Benedict XVI. There's also Brazilian Archbishop João Bráz de Aviz at the Congregation for Religious, a friend of the Focolare who's had a good relationship through the years with the liberation theology movement in Latin America.

These guys may not be anybody's idea of a flaming liberal, but they're also not hardcore conservatives.

Second, the assumption that naming a lot of Italians and Vatican officials automatically makes the College of Cardinals more "Roman," in the sense of more insular and less in touch with the wider world, is open to question.

Take, for instance, Italian Archbishops Fernando Filoni, prefect of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples, and Giuseppe Bertello, president of the government of the Vatican city-state. Both are veteran diplomats who have served all over the world. Filoni was assigned at various points to Sri Lanka, Iran, Brazil, Jordan, Iraq and the Philippines, in addition to spending 1992-2001 in Hong Kong heading up a study mission on China. Bertello has served in Sudan, Turkey, Venezuela, Mexico, Ghana, Togo, Benin and Rwanda.

To be clear, these weren't pleasure cruises. Filoni was in Baghdad in April 2003 when the U.S.-led invasion began, while Bertello was in Rwanda in 1994 at the height of the genocide. As most Western diplomats fled, Filoni and Bertello both stayed on the job, insisting they couldn't abandon the local church or the missionaries. Both won high marks for their humanitarian and diplomatic efforts, even if both were ultimately powerless to stop the bloodshed unfolding around them.

In the abstract, is it really the case that Italians and Vatican officials such as Filoni and Bertello are bound to have a more narrow outlook than, say, a residential prelate from North America or Africa who's rarely traveled outside his comfort zone?

If you want an actual newsflash from this consistory, Filoni and Bertello hint at the headline: "Triumph of the Diplomats."

Five of the 18 new cardinal-electors named by Benedict XVI -- notably, the first five names on the list -- come out of the Vatican diplomatic corps. In addition to Filoni and Bertello, the former diplomats include:

- Portuguese Archbishop Manuel Monteiro de Castro, now running a Vatican court, who's previously served in the Antilles, El Salvador, Honduras and South Africa;
Spanish Archbishop Santos Abril y Castelló, who replaced Cardinal Bernard Law as Archpriest of St. Mary Major after spending much of his career in Cameroon, Bolivia, Argentina and Slovenia; and
- Italian Archbishop Antonio Maria Vegliò, currently heading the Pontifical Council for Migrants and Refugees, who's spent time in Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, Senegal, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, Lebanon and Kuwait.

All this is striking in light of the traditional Vatican rivalry between the two heavyweight departments that tend to dominate the place, the Secretariat of State and the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith. In oversimplified terms, it's a contrast between diplomats and theologians -- between outward-looking figures focused on geopolitics and dialogue, and more inward-looking figures concerned with Catholic identity and doctrinal fidelity. (In theory, of course, these two instincts can be complementary, so the tension is usually a question of where one puts the emphasis.)

The 2005 election of Benedict XVI, whose previous job had been running the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith for a quarter-century, was seen as a big win for the theologians. When the new pope tapped a former aide from the doctrinal office, Cardinal Tarcisio Bertone, as his Secretary of State, it seemed to put a slammer on that conclusion.

In that light, the consistory of 2012 shapes up as a good day for the diplomats -- and, perhaps, for the cosmopolitan, dialogue-oriented and practical mentality long associated with the world's oldest diplomatic corps. How that plays out in practice remains to be seen, but it's at least a fresh question to ponder.

(Source: John L. Allen Jr, in - NCR, jan. 20, 2012)

vrijdag 13 januari 2012

The Church’s new princes

In five weeks’ time, Pope Benedict XVI will create 22 new cardinals in the fourth consistory of his pontificate, 18 of whom will be eligible to vote in the next conclave to choose a new Pope. So who are those swelling the elite ranks of the Church?

If there were any doubts before last week, it is now clear to many that Pope Benedict XVI wants to keep the papacy firmly in the hands of the Europeans.

The Vatican’s announcement last week that Pope is to create 22 new cardinals in a consistory on 18 February revealed that nearly three-quarters of those receiving a red hat are from Europe (seven alone from Italy). The remainder of the appointments
in this the fourth consistory of the Ratzinger pontificate include three new cardinals from North America, two from Asia and one from Brazil. Four of those appointed are beyond the age of 80 and so ineligible to vote in a conclave to elect a new Pope.

Ten of the new cardinals are currently in charge of Roman Curia or Rome-based offices that, by long-standing custom, are almost always headed by a cardinal. Several in this year’s group were named to their posts as a reward for a lifetime of service

to the Holy See. Others are in a position, such as head of a congregation, where it is considered essential that he be of the highest ecclesiastical rank. The remainder are those who are residential bishops heading major archdioceses that are traditionally headed by cardinals.

As of 18 February there will be 125 cardinal-electors, five beyond the ceiling of 120set by Pope Paul VI. And for the first time, now standing at 63 those created by Benedict XVI will outnumber by one those created by Blessed John Paul II. In the course of nearly seven years as Bishop of Rome, Pope Benedict will have created a total of 68 cardinal-electors, although three of these have already lost their vote by turning 80 and two others have died. He will have named 39 of the current 67 European electors (and 21 of the 30 Italians), but only six of the 22 voters from Latin America.

Significantly, 43 of the 125 electors are heads or retired heads of Roman offices, while another 14 residential cardinals once worked for the Vatican as priests. This puts the Curia voting bloc at 57 members. It is not apparent that this group, the Italian bloc or the European coalition as a whole is united enough to ensure the election of one of its members. But these distinct interest groups will all be determinant in choosing a compromise candidate who becomes the next pope.

(Source: Robert Mickens, - The Tablet, 14 January 2012)

woensdag 11 januari 2012

Modifications to Rites for the Creation of new Cardinals

The Office of Liturgical Celebrations of the Supreme Pontiff has introduced certain modifications to the ordinary public consistories for the creation of new cardinals. The rites followed until now have been revised and simplified, with the Holy Father's approval. The modifications chiefly involve the unification of the three phases: the imposition of the biretta, the consignment of the ring and the assignation of the title or diaconate. The collect and the concluding prayer have been modified, and the proclamation of the Word of God made shorter.

On 6 January Benedict XVI announced his intention to create twenty-two new members of the College of Cardinals, on 18 February, in what will be the fourth consistory of his pontificate.

In its announcement the Office of Liturgical Celebrations explains that the liturgical reform which began with Vatican Council II also covered the rites for imposing the biretta and assigning a title to new cardinals during consistories, and that the modified form of the celebration was first used by Paul VI in April 1969. In preparing those new rites the main criterion adopted was that of giving a liturgical setting to a process which, of itself, is not part of the liturgy. The creation of new cardinals had to be inserted into a context of prayer, while at the same time avoiding anything that could give rise to the idea of a "cardinalatial Sacrament". Historically speaking, in fact, consistories have never been considered as a liturgical rite but as a meeting of the Pope with cardinals as part of the governance of the Church.

Bearing in mind these historical aspects, and in continuity with the current form and main elements of consistories, the existing practice has been reviewed and simplified. In the first place, the collect and concluding prayer of the 1969 rite have been recouped, because they are particularly rich and derive from the great Roman tradition of prayer. The two prayers, in fact, speak explicitly of the powers the Lord gave to the Church, in particular that of Peter. The Pope also prays directly for himself, that he may carry out his duties well.

The proclamation of the Word of God will also take a shorter form, as used in the 1969 rite, with a single Gospel reading (Mk 10, 32-45) which is the same in the two rites. Finally, the consignment of the cardinalatial ring will be integrated into a single rite. Prior to the 1969 reform, the red hat was imposed during the public consistory, which was followed by a secret consistory in which the ring was consigned and the title or diaconate assigned. Nowadays the distinction between public and secret consistory is no longer observed and it was deemed more coherent to bring the three phases of the creation of new cardinals together into a single rite. What remains unchanged is the following day's concelebration of Mass by the Pope and the new cardinals, which begins with an expression of homage and gratitude addressed to the Pope by the first of the new cardinals in the name of all the others.

(Source: VIS)

Naming of New Cardinals Prompts Speculation About Next Pope

Pope Benedict XVI has increased the likelihood that his successor will come from Europe and that he will be an Italian after he named a relatively large number of European prelates as cardinals last week.

The Pope announced Friday he was naming 22 new cardinals to join him as his closest advisers and to be electors of popes. He will formally elevate them to the Sacred College of Cardinals — essentially a papal senate — at a Vatican consistory on February 18.

Sixteen of the 22 are European and seven are Italian. Apart from one new cardinal from Brazil, none was chosen from the Southern hemisphere, despite the faith growing at its fastest pace in Africa, and Latin America being home to half of the world's Catholics.

Europeans will now number over half of all cardinal-electors (67 out of 125), and nearly a quarter of all voters in a conclave will be Italian. This is leading to speculation that the papacy could return to the Italians — a tradition that went unbroken from 1522 until the election of Polish Pope John Paul II in 1978.

Pope Benedict's fourth consistory will, in any case, mark a significant milestone: For the first time, the number of “Princes of the Church” he has appointed who remain under 80 and therefore eligible to vote in a conclave will exceed the number of those appointed by Blessed Pope John Paul II (63 versus 62).

Benedict XVI has therefore now put his own definitive stamp on the future governance of the Church and, in particular, made a significant step toward lining up his successor.

One notable development is the re-Italianization of the Curia. All but one of the new Italian cardinals appointed Friday were heads of Vatican departments, leading some Vatican observers to express surprise that a German Pontiff would tap so many Italians to have leading positions in the Curia. His predecessor, John Paul II, made concerted efforts to internationalize the Vatican, albeit with a distinctly Polish emphasis.

But when he was Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger, Pope Benedict served nearly 25 years in the Curia and so he knows and feels comfortable with its predominantly Italian culture.

In addition, it remains an unwritten rule that heads of Vatican departments are usually made cardinal at the earliest opportunity. As Benedict XVI had already chosen mostly Italians for these posts, they naturally were in line for a “red hat.”

Many Vatican commentators also put the large number of Italian appointments down to the influence of the Pope's deputy, Vatican Secretary of State Cardinal Tarcisio Bertone, whose hand in these nominations, they say, is clearly visible.

But this is likely to be a passing phase now that nearly all the senior Curia positions are filled and the heads of these Vatican departments have red hats.

Two more important Curial appointments — to the Vatican's doctrinal office and to the Secretary of State (Bertone's office) — are the only major Curial appointments remaining over the next year or so, meaning that any future consistory of new cardinals will doubtless revert to prominent diocesan bishops from Latin America, Asia, Africa or the Middle East.

Still, this hasn't prevented some from criticising the Pope for making the latest batch of new cardinals too eurocentric. “We now have a Church which has a growing number of young people and Africans, but guided by a group of old European cardinals,” said one Church source.

The Pope's supporters, however, say his emphasis on Europe is unsurprising as it is consistent with his overall vision: one which sees restoration of the faith to the old continent as vital to the spread of the faith worldwide. From the outset of his pontificate, Benedict XVI pledged to dedicate himself to that end, and took the name of Benedict in part to honor St. Benedict of Nursia, the patron of Europe.

Furthermore, the Church cannot be compared with how other international institutions function such as the United Nations.

“The red hat is not distributed according to geopolitical or regional reasons,” explained veteran Italian Vatican watcher Andrea Tornielli, “and the massive presence of Catholics in a country or continent does not of course entitle it to red hats, and even less, seats in a conclave.”

It's too early to say whether any of the new intake are papabile — leading contenders to be Pope. But among them are two respected American Church leaders who could one day be considered for the See of Peter: Archbishop Timothy Dolan of New York, and Archbishop Edwin O'Brien who currently heads a Vatican Order dating back to the Crusades that offers assistance to the Church in the Holy Land.

They bring the total number of cardinals from the United States eligible to vote in a conclave to 12, or nearly 10 percent of the total number of cardinal-electors.

Canada also had a new cardinal named on Friday: Archbishop Thomas Collins of Toronto, bringing Canada's total to three. His colleague, Cardinal Marc Ouellet from Quebec, remains one of the leading contenders to succeed Benedict XVI.

(Source: Newsmax)

vrijdag 6 januari 2012

Le Collège des cardinaux au 18 février 2012

Entre parenthèses figurent l’année de naissance de chaque cardinal et son siège ou sa fonction actuels ; en majuscules, les XXX cardinaux électeurs (âgés de moins de 80 ans le 18 février prochain). Les chiffres sont ceux des cardinaux par continent et par pays (dont, entre parenthèses, le nombre d’électeurs)

EUROPE = 119 (67)

Allemagne = 9 (6)
Électeurs : Paul Josef CORDES (1934, ex-Curie), Walter KASPER (1933, ex-Curie), Karl LEHMANN (1936, Mayence), Reinhardt MARX (1953, Munich), Joachim MEISNER (1933, Cologne), Rainer Maria WOELKI (1956, Berlin).
Non électeurs : Karl Becker (1928, théologien), Walter Brandmüller (1929, ex-Curie), Friedrich Wetter (1928, ex-Munich).

Autriche = 1 (1)
É. : Christoph SCHÖNBORN (1945, Vienne).

Belgique = 2 (1)
É. : Godfried DANNEELS (1933, ex-Malines-Bruxelles).
N. É. : Julien Ries (1920, théologien)

Bosnie-Herzégovine = 1 (1)
É. : Vinko PULJIC (1945, Vrhbosna-Sarajevo).

Croatie = 1 (1)
É. : Josip BOZANIC (1949, Zagreb).

Espagne = 10 (5)
É. : Carlos AMIGO VALLEJO (1934, Séville), Antonio CAÑIZARES LLOVERA (1945, Tolède), Lluis MARTINEZ SISTACH (1937, Barcelone), Antonio Maria ROUCO VARELA (1936, Madrid), Santos ABRIL y CASTELLO (1935, Curie).
N.É. : Julián Herranz Casado (1930, ex-Curie), Ricardo Maria Carles Gordo (1926, ex-Barcelone), José Manuel Estepa Llaurens (1926, ex-Armées), Francisco Alvarez Martinez (1925, ex-Tolède), Eduardo Martinez Somalo (1927, ex-Curie)

France = 9 (4)
É. : Philippe BARBARIN (1950, Lyon), Jean-Pierre RICARD (1944, Bordeaux), Jean-Louis TAURAN (1943, Curie), André VINGT-TROIS (1942, Paris).
N.É. : Roger Etchegaray (1922, ex-Curie), Jean Honoré (1920, ex-Tours), Bernard Panafieu (1931, ex-Marseille), Paul Poupard (1930, ex-Curie), Albert Vanhoye (1923, théologien).

Grande-Bretagne = 2 (2)
É. : Cormac MURPHY-O’CONNOR (1932, ex-Westminster), Keith Michael Patrick O’BRIEN (1938, Édimbourg).

Hongrie = 2 (1)
É. : Péter ERDÖ (1952, Esztergom-Budapest).
N.É. : Laszlo Paskai (1927, ex-Esztergom-Budapest).

Irlande = 2 (1)
É. : Sean BRADY (1939, Armagh).
N.É. : Desmond Connell (1926, ex-Dublin).

Italie = 52 (30)
É. : Angelo AMATO (1938, Curie), Ennio ANTONELLI (1936, Curie), Angelo BAGNASCO (1943, Gênes), Fortunato BALDELLI (1935, Curie), Giuseppe BERTELLO (1942, Curie), Tarcisio BERTONE (1934, Curie), Giuseppe BETORI (1947, Florence), Carlo CAFFARRA (1938, Bologne), Domenico CALCAGNO (1943, Curie), Francesco COCCOPALMERIO (1938, Curie), Angelo COMASTRI (1943, Curie), Velasio DE PAOLIS (1935, Curie), Raffaele FARINA (1933, Curie), Fernando FILONI (1946, Curie), Giovanni LAJOLO (1935, ex-Curie), Renato MARTINO (1932, ex-Curie), Mauro PIACENZA (1944, Curie), Francesco MONTERISI (1934, Curie), Attilio NICORA (1937, Curie), Severino POLETTO (1933, ex-Turin), Gianfranco RAVASI (1942, Curie), Giovanni Battista RE (1934, ex-Curie), Paolo ROMEO (1938, Palerme), Paolo SARDI (1934, Curie), Angelo SCOLA (1941, Milan), Crescenzio SEPE (1943, Naples), Dionigi TETTAMANZI (1934, ex-Milan), Agostino VALLINI (1940, Curie), Antonio Maria VEGLIO (1938, Curie), Giuseppe VERSALDI (1943, Curie).
N.É. : Fiorenzo Angelini (1916, ex-Curie), Lorenzo Antonetti (1922, ex-Curie), Domenico Bartolucci (1917, ex-Curie), Giacomo Biffi (1928, ex-Bologne), Agostino Cacciavillan (1926, ex-Curie), Giovanni Canestri (1918, ex-Gênes), Marco Cé (1925, ex-Venise), Giovanni Cheli (1918, ex-Curie), Giovanni Coppa (1925, ex-nonce), Andrea Cordero Lanza di Montezemolo (1925, ex-nonce), Salvatore De Giorgi (1930, ex-Palerme), Carlo Furno (1921, ex-nonce), Francesco Marchisano (1929, ex-Curie), Carlo Maria Martini (1927, ex-Milan), Silvano Piovanelli (1924, ex-Florence), Camillo Ruini (1931, ex-Rome), Sergio Sebastiani (1931, ex-Curie), Elio Sgreccia (1928, ex-Curie), Achille Silvestrini (1923, ex-Curie), Angelo Sodano (1927, ex-Curie), Ersilio Tonini (1914, ex-Ravenne), Roberto Tucci (1921, ex-Curie).

Lettonie = 1 (0)
N.É. : Janis Pujats (1930, Riga).

Lituanie = 1 (1)
É. : Audrys Juozas BACKIS (1937, Vilnius).

Malte = 1 (0)
N. É. : Prosper Grech (1925, théologien)

Pays-Bas = 2 (1)
É. : Willem Jacobus EIJK (1953, Utrecht)
N.É. : Adrianus Johannes Simonis (1931, ex-Utrecht).

Pologne = 8 (4)
É. : Stanislaw DZIWISZ (1939, Cracovie), Zenon GROCHOLEWSKI (1939, Curie), Kazimierz NYCZ (1950, Varsovie), Stanislaw RYLKO (1945, Curie).
N.É. : Jozef Glemp (1929, ex-Varsovie), Henryk Roman Gulbinowicz (1923, ex-Wroclaw), Franciszek Macharski (1927, ex-Cracovie), Stanislaw Nagy (1921, théologien).

Portugal = 3 (2)
É. : Manuel MONTEIRO de CASTRO (1938, Curie), José da Cruz POLICARPO (1936, Lisbonne).
N.É. : José Saraiva Martins (1932, ex-Curie).

Roumanie = 1 (0)
N.É. : Lucian MURESAN (1931, Alba Iulia des roumains)

Slovaquie = 2 (0)
N.É. : Jan Chryzostom Korec (1924, ex-Nitra), Jozef Tomko (1924, ex-Curie).

Slovénie = 1 (1)
É. : Franc RODÉ (1934, ex-Curie).

Suisse = 4 (2)
É. : Kurt KOCH (1950, Curie), Henri SCHWERY (1932, ex-Sion).
N.É. : Gilberto Agustoni (1922, ex-Curie), Georges-Marie Cottier (1922, théologien).

Tchèque (Rép.) = 2 (2)
É. : Dominik DUKA (1943, Prague), Miloslav VLK (1932, ex-Prague).

Ukraine = 2 (1)
É. : Lubomyr HUSAR (1933, ex-Kiev-Galicie).
N.É. : Marian Jaworski (1926, ex-Lviv des latins).

Amérique du Nord = 22 (15)

Canada = 3 (3)
É. : Thomas Christopher COLLINS (1947, Toronto), Marc OUELLET (1944, Curie), Jean-Claude TURCOTTE (1936, Montréal).

États-Unis = 19 (12)
É. : Raymond Leo BURKE (1948, Curie), Daniel DiNARDO (1949, Galveston-Houston), Timothy Michael DOLAN (1950, New York), Edward Michael EGAN (1932, New York), Francis Eugene GEORGE (1937, Chicago), William Joseph LEVADA (1936, Curie), Roger Michael MAHONY (1936, ex-Los Angeles), Edwin O’BRIEN (1939, Curie), Sean Patrick O’MALLEY (1944, Boston), Justin Francis RIGALI (1935, ex-Philadelphie), James Francis STAFFORD (1932, Curie), Donald William WUERL (1940, Washington).
N.É. : William Wakefield Baum (1926, ex-Curie), Anthony Joseph Bevilacqua (1923, ex-Philadelphie), William Henry Keeler (1931, ex-Baltimore), Bernard Francis Law (1931, ex-Boston), Theodore Edgar McCarrick (1930, ex-Washington), Adam Joseph Maida (1930, Detroit), Edmund Casimir Szoka (1927, ex-Curie).

Amérique latine = 32 (22)

Argentine = 4 (2)
É. : Jorge Mario BERGOGLIO (1936, Buenos Aires), Leonardo SANDRI (1943, Curie).
N.É. : Estanislao Esteban Karlic (1926, ex-Parana), Jorge Maria Mejia (1923, ex-Curie).

Bolivie = 1 (1)
É. : Julio TERRAZAS SANDOVAL (1936, Santa Cruz de la Sierra).

Brésil = 10 (6)
É. : Geraldo Majella AGNELO (1933, ex-Sao Salvador de Bahia), Raymundo Damasceno ASSIS (1937, Aparecida), Joao BRAZ de AVIZ (1947, Curie), Claudio HUMMES (1934, Curie), Eusebio Oscar SCHEID (1932, Rio de Janeiro), Odilo Pedro SCHERER (1949, Sao Paulo).
N.É. : Paulo Evaristo Arns (1921, ex-Sao Paulo), José Freire Falcao (1925, ex-Brasilia), Serafim Fernandes de Araujo (1924, ex-Belo Horizonte), Eugenio de Araujo Sales (1920, ex-Rio de Janeiro).

Chili = 2 (1)
É. : Francisco Javier ERRAZURIZ OSSA (1933, ex-Santiago),
N.É. : Jorge Arturo Medina Estévez (1926, ex-Curie).

Colombie = 2 (1)
É. : Pedro RUBIANO SAENZ (1932, Bogota).
N.E. : Dario Castrillon Hoyos (1929, ex-Curie).

Cuba = 1 (1)
É. : Jaime Lucas ORTEGA Y ALAMINO (1936, La Havane).

Équateur = 1 (1)
É. : Raúl Eduardo VELA CHIRIBOGA (1934, ex-Quito).

Guatemala = 1 (1)
É. : Rodolpho QUEZADA TORUNO (1932, Guatemala).

Honduras = 1 (1)
É. : Oscar Andrès RODRIGUEZ MARADIAGA (1942, Tegucigalpa).

Mexique = 4 (4)
É. : Javier LOZANO BARRAGAN (1933, Curie), Norberto RIVERA CARRERA (1942, Mexico), Francisco ROBLES ORTEGA (1949, Guadalajara), Juan SANDOVAL INIGUEZ (1933, ex-Guadalajara).

Nicaragua = 1 (0)
N.É. : Miguel OBANDO BRAVO (1926, ex-Managua).

Pérou = 1 (1)
É. : Juan Luis CIPRIANI THORNE (1943, Lima).

Porto Rico = 1 (0)
N.É. : Luis Aponte Martinez (1922, ex-Porto-Rico).

Saint-Domingue = 1 (1)
É. : Nicolas de Jesus LOPEZ RODRIGUEZ (1936, Saint-Domingue).

Venezuela = 1 (1)
É. : Jorge Liberato UROSA SAVINO (1942, Caracas).

Afrique = 17 (11)

Afrique du Sud = 1 (1)
É. : Wilfrid Fox NAPIER (1941, Durban).

Angola = 1 (0)
N.É. : Alexandre Do Nascimento (1925, ex-Luanda).

Cameroun = 1 (0)
N.É. : Christian Wiyghan Tumi (1930, ex-Douala).

Côte d’Ivoire = 1 (0)
N.É. : Bernard Agré (1926, ex-Abidjan).

Égypte = 1 (1)
É. : Antonios NAGUIB (1935, Alexandrie des coptes).

Ghana = 1 (1)
É. : Peter Kodwo Appiah TURKSON (1948, Cape Coast).

Guinée = 1 (1)
É. : Robert SARAH (1945, Curie).

Kenya = 1 (1)
É. : John NJUE (1944, Nairobi).

Mozambique = 1 (0)
N.É. : Alexandre José Maria Dos Santos (1924, ex-Maputo).

Nigeria = 2 (2)
É. : Francis ARINZE (1932, ex-Curie), Antoni Olubunimi OKOGIE (1936, Lagos).

Ouganda = 1 (0)
N.É. : Emmanuel Wamala (1926, ex-Kampala).

RD-Congo = 1 (1)
É. : Laurent PASINYA MONSENGWO (1939, Kinshasa).

Sénégal = 1 (1)
É. : Théodore-Adrien SARR (1936, Dakar).

Soudan = 1 (1)
É. : Gabriel ZUBEIR WAKO (1941, Khartoum).

Tanzanie = 1 (1)
É. : Polycarp PENGO (1944, Dar-Es-Salaam).

Zambie = 1 (0)
N. É. : Medardo Joseph Mazombwe (1931, ex-Lusaka).

Asie = 20 (9)

Chine = 2 (1)
É. : John TONG HON (1939, Hong Kong).
N. É. : Joseph Zen Ze-kiun (1932, ex-Hong Kong).

Corée = 1 (0)
N. É. : Nicolas Cheong-Jin-Suk (1931, Séoul).

Inde = 6 (4)
É. : Georges ALENCHERRY (1945, Ernakulam-Angamaly des syro-malabars), Ivan DIAS (1936, ex-Curie), Oswald GRACIAS (1944, Bombay), Telesphore Placidus TOPPO (1939, Ranchi).
N.É. : Simon Lourdusamy (1924, ex-Curie), Simon Ignatius Pimenta (1920, ex-Bombay).

Indonésie = 1 (1)
É. : Julius Riyadi DARMAATMADJA (1934, ex-Djakarta).

Irak = 1 (0)
N.É. : Emmanuel III Delly (1927, Babylone des chaldéens).

Liban = 1 (0)
N.É. : Nasrallah Pierre Sfeir (1920, ex-Antioche des Maronites).

Philippines = 3 (1)
É. : Gaudencio B. ROSALES (1932, ex-Manille).
N.É. : José Sanchez (1920, ex-Curie), Ricardo Vidal (1931, ex-Cebu)

Sri Lanka 1 (1)
É. : Malcolm RANJITH (1947, Colombo).

Syrie = 1 (0)
N.É. : Ignace Moussa DAOUD (1930, ex-Curie).

Taiwan = 1 (0)
N.É. : Paul Shan Kuo-hsi (1923, ex-Kaohsiung).

Thaïlande = 1 (0)
N.É. : Michael Michai KITBUNCHU (1929, ex-Bangkok).

Vietnam = 1 (1)
É. : Jean-Baptiste PHAM MINH MAN (1934, Hô-Chi-Minh Ville).
Océanie = 4 (1)
Australie = 3 (1)
É. : George PELL (1941, Sydney).
N.É. : Edward Idris Cassidy (1924, ex-Curie), Edward Bede Clancy (1923, ex-Sydney),

Nouvelle-Zélande = 1 (0)
É. : Thomas Stafford WILLIAMS (1930, ex-Wellington).

(Source: La Croix, 6 janvier 2012)

Benoît XVI annonce 22 nouveaux cardinaux

Lors de l’angélus du vendredi 6 janvier, place Saint-Pierre à Rome, le pape a annoncé la création de 22 nouveaux cardinaux lors d’un consistoire, le 18 février prochain. Le nouveau collège des cardinaux, marqué par une forte présence italienne, comptera 214 cardinaux, originaires de 70 pays, dont 125 électeurs originaires de 51 pays. Ce consistoire, qui se déroulera le 18 février, sera le quatrième de Benoît XVI. Il marquera un seuil important du pontificat, puisque, désormais, la majorité des 125 cardinaux électeurs, qui éliront son successeur, auront été nommés par le pape allemand.

Le collège des cardinaux comptait, ce vendredi 6 janvier au matin, 192 cardinaux, dont 108 électeurs. Lors du consistoire du 19 février, il comptera 214 cardinaux, originaires de 70 pays (dont 125 électeurs). Les précédents consistoires (24 mars 2006, 24 novembre 2007, 20 novembre 2010) avaient vu Benoît XVI créer 62 cardinaux, dont 57 sont encore vivants à ce jour. Parmi ces 62 prélats, 50 étaient électeurs,
âgés de moins de 80 ans, et 46 le sont toujours.

Ces consistoires avaient tous obéi à la règle voulue par Paul VI dans son Motu Prorio Ingravescentem Aetatem , fixant le nombre d’électeurs (c’est-à-dire âgés de moins de 80 ans) à 120. Par ailleurs, deux règles non écrites avaient été respectées : pas de barrette pour les titulaires de sièges résidentiels dont le prédécesseur, à la retraite, n’a pas atteint 80 ans, ni pour ceux dont le prédécesseur est en fonction à la Curie. Cette quatrième promotion de cardinaux n’a pas dérogé à la règle. De nombreux archevêques résidentiels (Los Angeles, Philadelphie, Westminster, Bruxelles, Séville, Rio, Salvador de Bahia, Bogota, Quito, Djakarta, Tolède, Turin…) devront attendre un futur consistoire pour prétendre à la pourpre cardinalice.

«Vague italienne»

La majorité des électeurs reste très européenne (67) et surtout italienne (30). L’Amérique du Nord compte 15 électeurs, dont 12 Américains et trois Canadiens. Les Latino-Américains sont 22, dont six Brésiliens, quatre Mexicains et deux Argentins. Les Africains sont onze, dont deux Nigérians. Neuf cardinaux sont asiatiques, dont quatre Indiens. Et l’Océanie compte un cardinal, australien.

Lors de ce consistoire, Benoît XVI a donné la priorité aux responsables de la Curie, promus quasi automatiquement au cardinalat. Ce qui explique la « vague italienne » de ce consistoire. La plupart des bénéficiaires sont, par ailleurs, réputés proche du cardinal Tarcisio Bertone,Secrétaire d’État. On notera l’absence de Mgr Rino Fisichella, président du nouveau Conseil pontifical pour la nouvelle évangélisation,
pourtant à la manœuvre cette année avec l’année de la foi et le synode des évêques sur la nouvelle évangélisation.

Un « Sénat » européen pour une Église du Sud

Au total, il faut relever deux paradoxes. Alors que l’Église devient, par l’évolution démographique de ses baptisés, une Église du Sud, son «Sénat », en particulier si l’on prend en compte les électeurs qui choisiront le successeur de Benoît XVI, reste fortement marqué par une présence occidentale et européenne. L’hyper-présence italienne conditionnera également le futur conclave.

Par ailleurs, alors que l’âge moyen du baptisé catholique, et aussi du clergé, dans le monde ne cesse de rajeunir, le collège des cardinaux reste composé d’hommes âgés, certes expérimentés, mais parfois éloignés des évolutions culturelles et technologiques actuelles.

(Source: La Croix, 6 janvier 2012)

Five observations on the new cardinals

Naming new cardinals is among the more important acts of any papacy, because the cardinals form the "electoral college" that will pick the next pope. That’s arguably even more significant this time around, given that Benedict XVI will turn 85 in April – and although there’s no sign of any health crisis, at that age it’s natural to begin thinking about what might come next.

Here are five quick observations about the 22 new cardinals named today by Benedict XVI, including 18 who are under 80 and therefore eligible to participate in a future conclave.

The consistory, when today’s nominees will actually enter the College of Cardinals, is set for Rome Feb. 18-19.

I. Bring on the Italians

It was already a commonplace observation about Benedict XVI that in some ways he has “re-Italianized” the Vatican and the papacy, perhaps a product of his comfort level with Italian ecclesial culture after spending almost the last thirty years in Rome.

Certainly today’s appointments will reinforce those impressions. Prior to today’s nominations, there were 24 Italians among 108 voting-age cardinals, representing 22 percent of the total. With seven Italians among the 18 cardinal electors named today, their share will rise to 25 percent, fully one-quarter of the number of cardinals who will elect the next pope. That’s by far the largest national bloc in the College of Cardinals; the next largest is the Americans, who will have 18 cardinals in total and 11 eligible to vote for the pope.

The preponderance of Italians, however, doesn’t necessarily make it more likely that the next pope will be an Italian. Historically, the Italians have often been divided among themselves, unable to agree on a single candidate, and it’s possible that scenario could repeat itself the next time around.

For instance, Cardinal Angelo Scola of Milan enjoys tremendous support in some quarters, but some Italians remain leery of his deep ties with the Communion and Liberation movement. Cardinal Gianfranco Ravasi, President of the Pontifical Council for Culture, is widely admired for his erudition and outreach to secular culture, but he doesn’t really have a natural base of support among the established Italian “camps.”

In any event, one thing seems certain: Given the high number of Italian electors, it’s difficult to imagine that the next pope could be elected without at last some strong support in Italian circles.

II. More (and more) Vatican cardinals

Perhaps the most obvious observation about the new crop of cardinals is that it’s top-heavy with Vatican personnel. Ten of the 18 voting-age cardinals, a majority, are officials of the Roman curia or hold some other Vatican job.

Including cardinals who are retired but still under 80, current or former Vatican officials already accounted for 34 of the 108 cardinal-electors, or 31 percent. Including the new nominees, Vatican officials will represent 44 out of 126 electors, or 35 percent.

All things being equal, the strong representation of Vatican officials in the College of Cardinals probably strengthens the possibility that the next pope could be a curial figure – or, at least, it may reduce the bias against electing someone whose last job was in Rome.

Notably, Benedict XVI left one Vatican figure off the list of new cardinals: Archbishop Rino Fisichella, President of the Pontifical Council for Promoting the New Evangelization.

The project of a “new evangelization” is the apple of Benedict’s eye, perhaps the most consistent theme he strikes in laying out his priorities for Catholicism in the 21st century. Given that putting a cardinal in charge of something is a traditional way for a pope to signal that he cares about it, it’s somewhat curious that Fisichella was left off the list.

(By the way, it’s not because Fisichella got the job only recently. Portuguese Archbishop Manuel Monteiro de Castro was named head of the Apostolic Penitentiary just yesterday, and he made the cut.)

III. Snub to Africa?

During his recent trip to Benin, his second voyage to Africa as pope, Benedict XVI praised the African continent as a “spiritual lung” for humanity and pointed to it as a critically important zone for the future of the Catholic church.

Yet in the appointments announced today, Africa was conspicuous by its absence. In the run-up to today’s announcement, it was widely believed that at least two Africans would be on the list: Archbishop Telesphore George Mpundu of Lusaka, Zambia, and Archbishop Cyprian Kizito Lwanga of Kampala in Uganda. In the end, however, neither made the cut.

At the moment, there are eleven Africans among the voting-age cardinals. Once the Feb.18-19 consistory takes place, there will still be 11 Africans, alongside 11 cardinal electors from the United States alone – despite the fact that Africa has more than twice the Catholic population of the United States.

In November, the number of African electors will drop to ten, as retired Cardinal Francis Arinze of Nigeria turns 80.

Part of the problem may be that Benedict’s picks today were disproportionately skewed to Vatican officials, and the two Africans who hold senior positions in the Roman Curia are already cardinals: Peter Turkson of Ghana, President of the Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace, and Robert Sarah of Guinea, President of Cor Unum.

In general, today's nominations reinforce the dominance of the West in the College of Cardinals. Only three of the 18 new electors come from the developing world -- one Brazilian, one Indian, and one from China (Hong Kong). In that sense, the College of Cardinals will continue to be unrepresentative of Catholic demography, given that two-thirds of the 1.2 billion Catholics in the world today live in the global south, a share projected to rise to three-quarters by mid-century.

IV. Technocrats, not ideologues

From the outside, people often assume that when a pope picks new cardinals, he must be tempted to “stack the deck” with men who think like him, thereby ensuring that his successor will consolidate his own policies.

In the case of Benedict XVI, that would translate into an assumption that his choices for cardinals ought to reflect his own fairly conservative theology and politics.

While there certainly are no “liberals” among today’s appointments, at least as measured by the secular sense of the term, the list does not appear to be significantly skewed in any particular ideological direction. Mostly, it’s a crop of technocrats – Italians and Vatican officials known more as pragmatic managers than for their theological or ideological point of view.

While there certainly are prominent “evangelicals” among the new bunch of cardinals, meaning men known as strong defenders of Catholic identity – Timothy Dolan of New York, for instance, and Thomas Collins of Toronto – for the most part, these are figures also know for openness and commitment to dialogue, as opposed to a hard ideological line.

The appointments also contain at least two figures with a reputation as theological moderates: Archbishop João Bráz de Aviz of Brazil, President of the Vatican’s Congregation for Religious, who’s been sympathetic over the years to liberation theology in Latin America and who has deep ties to the Focolare movement; and Syro-Malabar Archbishop George Alencherry of India, committed to the Indian church’s efforts on behalf of the tribal underclass.

In that sense, it’s difficult to make the case that Benedict XVI has “stacked the deck” today in a political or ideological sense.

V. Dolan’s star still rising

It’s hard to find anyone in the Catholic world these days whose rise up the career ladder has been more meteoric than Archbishop Timothy Dolan of New York, who will turn 62 a week before he gets his red hat as a cardinal in the Feb. 18-19 consistory.

First made auxiliary bishop of St. Louis in 2000, Dolan has been promoted twice in the last decade: he became the Archbishop of Milwaukee in 2002, and then took over the biggest bully pulpit in the American church as the Archbishop of New York in 2009.

He’s also the elected president of the U.S. bishops’ conference, and more and more, he’s the Vatican’s go-to guy in America. Benedict XVI tapped Dolan to lead a review of seminary life in Ireland as part of the response to the sex abuse crisis, and the pontiff also included him among a set of global heavy-hitters named as members of the Council for New Evangelization.

It’s striking that Benedict XVI was willing to step outside his own skin, if just a little bit, to include Dolan on today’s list of new cardinals. Heretofore, Benedict has been a stickler for the custom that a new cardinal is not named until the previous cardinal of that diocese turns 80 (unless, of course, the retired cardinal dies in the meantime). That’s likely the reason, for instance, that Archbishop Vincent Nichols of Westminster is still in a holding pattern; his predecessor, Cardinal Cormac Murphy-O’Connor, doesn’t turn 80 until August.

Yet Benedict made an exception in Dolan’s case. His predecessor, Cardinal Edward Egan, is still 79, and won’t turn 80 until April 2. It’s another small, but telling, indication that Dolan clearly enjoys the favor of the pope.

(Source: John L. Allen Jr, Jan. 06, 2012 NCR Today)

Pope names 22 new cardinals

Benedict XVI today announced the names of 22 new cardinals, including 18 under the age of 80 and thus eligible to vote for the next pope. The consistory, the event in which these nominees will formally enter the College of Cardinals, is set for Rome on Feb. 18-19.

Once again, Benedict’s choices are top-heavy with Italians (seven of the 18 voting cardinals), Vatican officials (ten) and Europeans (twelve). Three also come from North America, including Archbishop Thomas Collins of Toronto along with Dolan and O’Brien (US).

Only three of the new cardinals come from outside the West: João Bráz de Aviz, a Brazilian who heads the Vatican office for religious life; John Tong Hon, bishop of Hong Kong; and George Alencherry, archbishop of the Syro-Malabar church in India.

The following is the complete list of new cardinals announced today by the pontiff, during his Angelus address marking the Feast of the Epiphany.

18 new cardinal electors

1. Fernando Filoni (Italian), Prefect of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples
2. Manuel Monteiro de Castro (Portuguese), Major Penitentiary of the Apostolic Penitentiary
3. Santos Abril y Castelló (Spanish) , Archpriest of the Basilica of St. Mary Major
4. Antonio Maria Vegliò (Italian), President of the Pontifical Council for Migrants and Refugees
5. Giuseppe Bertello (Italian), President of the Government of the Vatican City State
6. Francesco Coccopalmerio (Italian), President of the Pontifical Council for Legislative Texts
7. João Bráz de Aviz (Brazilian), Prefect of the Congregation for Religious
8. Edwin O’Brien (American), Grand Master of the Order of the Holy Sepulchre
9. Domenico Calcagno (Italian), President of the Apostolic Patrimony of the Holy See
10. Giuseppe Versaldi (Italian), President of the Prefecture for the Economic Affairs of the Holy See
11. George Alencherry (Indian), Major Archbishop of the Syro-Malabar Church in India
12. Thomas Collins (Canadian), Archbishop of Toronto
13. Dominik Duka (Czech), Archbishop of Prague
14. Wim Eijk (Dutch), Archbishop of Utrecht
15. Giuseppe Bettori (Italian), Archbishop of Florence
16. Timothy Dolan (American), Archbishop of New York
17. Rainer Maria Woelki (German), Archbishop of Berlin
18. John Tong Hon (Chinese), Bishop of Hong Kong

In keeping with papal custom, Benedict XVI also named four new cardinals who are already over 80 years old, and hence ineligible to take part in a future conclave. These are often called "honorary" appointments, used to recognize lifelong service to the church in some capacity.

Four honorary cardinals:

1. Archbishop Lucian Mureşan, Major Archbishop of Făgăraş şi Alba Iulia (Romanian)
2. Monsignor Julien Ries (Belgian)
3. Augustinian Fr. Prosper Grech (Maltese)
4. Jesuit Fr. Karl Becker (German)

Today’s appointments bring the total number of voting-age cardinals to 126, six more than the ceiling of 120 established by Pope Paul VI. That number should drop back down to 120 on July 26, when American Cardinal James Francis Stafford turns 80; five more cardinals will have crossed the threshold of 80 by that stage.

In terms of notable omissions, neither the new Archbishop of Manila in the Philippines, Luis Antonio Tagle, nor the Archbishop of Westminster in the U.K., Vincent Nichols, were on the list. In both cases, the informal rule that a new cardinal is not created until the retired cardinal of that archdiocese turns 80 may have been in force, as both of the previous incumbents won’t pass the 80 threshold until August. Strikingly, Benedict XVI named Dolan a cardinal despite the fact that his predecessor, Egan, won’t turn 80 until April 2.

(Source: John L Allen Jr, NCR Today)